3000 Level Courses

AP/HUMA 3016 6.00 Animals in Human Culture

This course offers an interdisciplinary study of the images, meanings and values that humans have assigned to animals in specific historical and cultural contexts. The question "What is an Animal?," and various perspectives on why the answer matters, will be explored through readings in and encounters with social history, cultural studies, fiction, philosophy, animal rights, literature and visual culture. Course credit exclusions: None.

Course Director: J. Berland

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3019 6.00 Cultural Transgressions: The Trickster's Creative Chaos

This course examines the ways in which tricksters are boundary crossers and the course
engages with the intersections of social categories of gender, class, race and sexual
identity/orientation in the examination of the trickster figure's movement between these
social categories or boundaries.
The course begins with the critical interdisciplinary approaches that shape an
understanding of the figure and establish theoretical frameworks for the analysis of
trickster texts. Examples of trickster texts in the first term link the trickster to creation
stories from a diverse range of traditions including the Greek Hermes and Prometheus,
Indigenous tricksters such as Coyote and Nanabush, the Monkey King from Asian
tradition, West African and Caribbean Anansi and Esu-Elegbara, the Jewish tricksters
Joha and Lilith, and Jesus in the Judeo-Christian tradition. The examination of these
examples gives students opportunities to apply the theory that introduces the course. The
second term develops the theoretical framework of the first term with the introduction
and application of postmodern theories of the trickster to contemporary examples
including gonzo tricksters, celebrity 'trickstars', outlaw/heroes, hucksters, hackers, and
hip hop 'gangstas'.

COURSE DIRECTOR: TBA

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3103 6.00 Childhood And Children In The Ancient Mediterranean

The course will examine childhood experience and the social construction of childhood in the ancient Mediterranean from the Bronze Age down to the end of classical antiquity.

COURSE DIRECTOR: R. Wei

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities, Children Studies and Classical Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3105 6.00 Greek and Roman Religion

Examines Greek and Roman religious beliefs and practices from an interdisciplinary perspective. Special attention is given to four major approaches to the divine (ritual, myth, art and philosophy) and their integration with other aspects of society and culture.

COURSE DIRECTOR: P. Harland

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Classical Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3109 6.00 Law & Culture in the Ancient World

A survey of legal concepts, practices, and narratives in the ancient world (Greece, Rome, and the Near East). Students will learn how the law is shaped by culture and history and how law and legal values are expressed in language, literature, rituals, and art.

PRIOR TO FALL 2009: Course credit exclusion: AP/HUMA 3109 3.0; AP/HUMA 2115 6.00.

Course Director: R. Fisher

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Classical Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3115 6.00 Myth in Ancient Greece: Texts and Theories

This course examines Greek myths of gods and heroes in their social, religious and historical contexts through close reading of primary texts and visual representations and through analysis of modern comparative, psychoanalytical and structuralist theories.

COURSE DIRECTOR:

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Classical Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3160 3.00 Sound, Politics and Media Art

This course considers sound as a social, aesthetic, historical, material, and political phenomenon, highlighting how it integrates with contemporary artistic practices. Students will learn about sound art experimental music; be introduced to the physics of sound; and explore how sonic and extra-sonic forces collide. Through these foci, the course addresses the cultural politics of sound, sound-making, hearing, and performance.

COURSE DIRECTOR: D. Cecchetto

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3165 3.00 Griots to Emcees: Examining Culture, Performance & Spoken Word EVENING COURSE

EVENING COURSE

Explores the form, function and content of Spoken Word, in terms of language, rhythm, historical developments, social- political contexts, as well as key artists of poetry, rap, dub, slam, lyricism and spoken word as live and direct purveyors of culture. By examining performance as text and artist/creator narratives, commentaries and cultural discourse, students survey the continuum through African storytelling traditions to contemporary global evolutions of lyricism and spoken word. Students explore the varied modes of oral/aural dissemination - including the stage, the page, audio recording, theatre, film and digital media - and analyze orality and voice as tools of cultural affirmation and resistance. The course includes a writing/performance intensive component

COURSE DIRECTOR:  TBA

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3201 6.00 Culture, Meaning & Form

Explores cultural expression as a social act. What happens when material culture is caught between opposing forces: corporations and governments? To the individual voices of resisting dissidents arguing for originality, individuality and authenticity? Cultural theories provide tools for analysis of these questions. Areas of concentration include: print media, film and other forms of popular culture.

COURSE DIRECTOR: A. Kitzmann

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3207 6.00 Doing Culture: Narratives of Cultural Production EVENING COURSE

Students discover how cultural production is fostered and disseminated from a hands-on perspective in this blended-learning course. Building on cultural theories and engaging with examples of local cultural production, students work in small groups with partner organizations to conduct community-based research.
Officially understood as critical to Canadian identity, ‘the cultural’ is influenced by its creators, its audience and the political climate that surrounds it. The culture sector is often under the spotlight to provide documented evidence of culture’s value and impact. Blending theory and practice, student learn valuable, transferable skills that enable them to contribute meaningfully to their chosen partner organizations, at the same time developing professional contacts while exploring career possibilities in the cultural sector.
First term includes equally-divided online and in-class time as students develop knowledge of key cultural theories, narrative-based research methods and research design; project management; professional oral and written communication, and techniques of visual presentation. Research projects, conducted online and through performing on-site research, occur in the second term. Regular in-class sessions provide opportunities to share experiences and receive feedback. Course director maintains regular contact with each group and organization throughout the term. Final projects are presented to the class and students’ project partners.

COURSE DIRECTOR: C. Steele

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3226 3.00 Visual Cultures and the Natural World

This course explores how visual images affect our understandings and perspectives of the natural world, through the examination of a variety of technologies and practices of visual representations of nature in different cultural and historical contexts.

COURSE DIRECTOR: J. Steigerwald

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3255 3.00 Indigenous Film Studies ONLINE

FULLY ONLINE

This course introduces students to Indigenous cinema in the United States and Canada, although films from Mexico, the Andes (Quechua) and Brazil will be screened when available. Students view approximately ten films and read works of film theory and criticism in order to analyze how Indigenous peoples use the moving image to re-present themselves and tell their own stories.

COURSE DIRECTOR: V. Alston

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3305 3.00 The Calypso and Caribbean Oral Literature

This course examines developments in the calypso circa 1922-1992, including changes in its form, function and content. The course also explores the calypso for commentaries on nationhood, community relations in a multi-ethnic society and issues of sexuality and gender relations.

COURSE DIRECTOR: D. Trotman

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3315 3.00 Black Literatures and Cultures in Canada

This course challenges the positioning of the African American experience as a dominant referent for black cultures in the Americas through an examination of fictional writing produced by blacks in Canada and the notion of a transatlantic African diasporic sensibility.

COURSE DIRECTOR: A. Medovarski

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3318 3.00 Black Popular Culture EVENING COURSE

EVENING COURSE

This course analyzes Black popular cultural forms and expressions in the Diaspora including music, film, television, style, contemporary visual arts, and as taken up in Black cultural theory. Understood as an analysis and response to the conditions of contemporary Black life, to decolonizing and civil rights struggles, and as a resistant and/or liberatory politics, Black popular culture is also internationally influential . Investigation will include issues of production, reception and commodification. The course will serve as an introduction to such theorists as Sylvia Wynter, Stuart Hall, Kobena Mercer, Paul Gilroy and Rinaldo Walcott. It will conclude with an introduction to Afrofuturism.

COURSE DIRECTOR: TBA

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3421 3.00 Interpreting the New Testament Pt. 1

A historical and literary study of the traditions of Paul and of the Beloved Disciple (“John”) as they developed from the time of their founders through several generations of followers.

COURSE DIRECTOR: P. Harland

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3422 3.00 Interpreting the New Testament Pt. 2

A historical and literary study of the synoptic gospels (Mark, Matthew, Luke) and of other early Christian literature of the first three generations.

COURSE DIRECTOR:  P. Harland

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3424 3.00 The History of the Bible

Traces the development, transmission, and translation of the Bible from early attempts to develop the canon to the construction of current English Bibles. Discusses figures that have helped shape the text, important translations, manuscript illuminations, and text-critical methodology.

COURSE DIRECTOR:   T. Burke

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3457 3.00 Gnosticism

Examines the early, radical alternative version of Christianity and Judaism based on mystical self-knowledge (gnosis), and the challenge it posed to orthodox views on such issues as authority, the role of women, wisdom and organizational structure.

COURSE DIRECTOR: T. Burke

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3481 6.00 Studies in World Religions

Examines selected religions such as Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and Judaism with special reference to selected texts, traditions and thought.

COURSE DIRECTOR: T. Michael

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3519 6.00 Contemporary Women’s Rituals

Women have been creating their own significant rituals both inside and outside established religious movements for centuries. Understanding the nature of women's rituals allows us to comprehend more fully women's relationship to humanity and to the numinous. This course will explore the phenomenon of women ritualizing and analyze a variety of contemporary women's rituals in light of classical and feminist ritual theory and methodologies. We will be analyzing rituals sanctioned by both monotheistic and polytheistic traditions as well as contemporary women's re-visioning and recreating of liturgy and ritual. Our approach will be interdisciplinary. We will introduce, develop, and expand upon several themes in ritual theory and women's liturgical communities.

COURSE DIRECTOR: S. Rowley

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3523 6.00 Feminism and Film

Feminist filmmakers, in exploring social and cultural manifestations of women’s various locations, deploy film as a cultural form to represent women and to tell their stories. Charting these debates, we explore cultural theory and feminist film theory to consider the filmic representation of the feminine body, the orchestration of the female voice and the organization of women’s desire in cinema, encouraging new readings of the complex subject ‘woman’.

COURSE DIRECTOR: G. Vanstone

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Culture & Expression Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3603 3.00 Vienna: City of Appearances

This course investigates Viennese intellectual and cultural production and situates it in the city’s larger history of imperial Baroque splendour, radical politics, psychosexual obsession, and refined taste culture.

Vienna is now a relatively minor European capital in the heart of Central Europe, but its history and culture can be seen as exemplary for traditions and imaginaries that define European-ness. As the former capital of the Holy Roman Empire and the multinational Habsburg lands which comprised much of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the city’s shape and texture is constituted by a rich medley of cultural lineages that are still visible today and lay bare flows of cultures, languages and people that define its urbanity through migration, cultural exchange and hybridity but have also produced periods of xenophobic backlash and totalitarian politics. This course investigates Viennese intellectual and cultural production and situates it in the city’s larger history of imperial Baroque splendour, radical politics, psychosexual obsession, and refined taste culture. It explores the strands of culture that have impacted the city in its contemporary state, both those strands that are highly recognizable and clichéd, such as gilt palaces, classical music, fin-de-siècle coffeehouse culture, and associations with Freud, Schnitzler, Wittgenstein, Klimt, Zweig, Loos, etc., as well as strands that are lesser known internationally, such as the city’s proletarian, anarchist and countercultural traditions, environmental awareness, technological innovation, cutting-edge fashion design, and social housing projects. Understanding these traditions, and how they constitute and have an impact on the city’s present-day shape, development and politics in the European context should give course participants insight not only into Vienna itself but also help them understand urbanity from a cultural studies and humanities perspective.

COURSE DIRECTOR: S. Ingram

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3605 6.00 Imagining the European City

This course examines selected traditions of imagining cities in European literature and film. It introduces students to the most significant source material and theories in the European tradition and provides examples of how narratives and visual representations have come to shape our understanding of the urban.

COURSE DIRECTOR: M. Reisenleitner

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3665 3.00 African Oral Tradition

This course introduces students to aspects of the traditional cultures of Africa. Drawing upon historical and contemporary examples, the course examines the particular features of verbal art as performance and the social functions it serves in everyday social contexts.

COURSE DIRECTOR: G. Butler

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3688 3.00 Holocaust Literature of Children & Youth

“This was the ghetto: where children grew down instead of up” (Spinelli, Milkweed, 2003, 153).This course analyzes themes and art relevant to children and youth in adolescents’ and children’s Holocaust literature. Participants apply cognitive and affective modes of perception—ways of knowing, perceiving, and sensing— to read through the eyes of the main characters, predominantly children and youth.

COURSE DIRECTOR: L. Wiseman

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities, Jewish Studies and CCY Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3690 6.00 Children's Literature & Film Adaptation

This course analyzes changing constructions of childhood and adolescence in children's literature and adaptations of these constructions in film versions. Issues of 'translation' are highlighted both in critical readings and through the pairing of literary and film texts.

COURSE DIRECTOR: TBA

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and CCY Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3691 3.00 Picture Books In Children’s Culture

The genre of picture books, the only genre unique to Children's Literature, provides a complex site for theories of narratology, simultaneously invoking differing codes of meaning-making from literary, visual, and performative arts. Students will read critical sources about narratology, literary theory, and picture book theory in conjunction with a variety of picture books that expose them to the historical development of the genre. They will study a diverse representation of genres of picture books, including fiction, non-fiction, verse, wordless picture books, postmodern picture books, and other illustrated texts such as comic books, manga, and graphic novels. Course participants will explore together how pictures mean, how text means, and how pictures and words inform, animate, and unsettle each other in the art and performance of the picture book. Attention will be paid both to sites of production and reception in the readings, class discussions, and written assignments in this course on the semiotics of picture books.

COURSE DIRECTOR:  L. Wiseman

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and CCY Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3692 6.00 Representations of Children's Alterity

Analyzes representations of children's and youths' alterity in picture books, graphic novels, novels, life writing, documentary and fiction films, photographs, art, advertising, and non-fiction for children and adults. Alterity refers to the "Other," marginalized through gender, sexuality, race, class, physical and mental (dis)abilities, religion, nation, and the difference between being human and being animal, cyborg, vampire, or alien. Notes: Priority will be given to Children's Studies and Humanities majors and minors.

COURSE DIRECTOR:  K. Verrall

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Children’s Studies (CCY) Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3803 3.00 Methods In The Study Of Religion

Explores the key approaches to the study of religion through an examination of various methodologies. Working through well-known case studies, students investigate a variety of approaches in practice to explore how questions of method shape our broader understanding of religious traditions.

This course explores key disciplinary approaches in the study of religion to understand how the choice of method shapes one’s understanding of beliefs, rituals, everyday practices and religious meaning in general. We begin by asking questions about the value and significance of the term 'religion', which is neither self-evident nor easily defined. The course examines different disciplinary perspectives that inform the ways in which religion is approached, understood and conceptualized, while providing an opportunity for students to appreciate the complex role religion plays in today’s world at many levels of social, cultural and political action. Finally, the course offers an overview of the field of ‘Religious Studies’ in terms of its historical and methodological scope, and examines its implications and challenges in light of many current issues such as secularism, spirituality, fundamentalism, globalization, minority and gender rights, and others.

COURSE DIRECTOR: A. Buturovic

RESERVED SPACES: All spaces reserved for Religious Studies Majors and Minors only.

AP/HUMA 3804 3.00 Theories in the Study Of Religion

Introduces students to the foundational theorists and key questions in the history of the academic study of religion. This course examines the lenses through which we view religion, that is, how differing theoretical models shape our understanding of religion as a human phenomenon. Starting with Marx, Durkheim and Weber, the course explores a variety of theoretical models and contemporary debates.

COURSE DIRECTOR:  A. Turner

RESERVED SPACES: All spaces reserved for Religious Studies Majors and Minors only.

AP/HUMA 3826 3.00 Religion and Film

This course examines the role and representation of the religious in popular film. It introduces students to the vocabularies of Religious Studies and Film Studies, and critically explores the relationship between religion and film as aspects of contemporary culture. Drawing mainly on mass-distributed films from Europe and North America, the course analyzes the ways in which contemporary cinema narrativizes Aboriginal, Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and other religious myths, histories, rituals, institutions, ethics, and doctrines. Issues addressed include: To what extent do particular films reflect the personal beliefs of particular film directors? How are religious leaders, institutions and histories portrayed in contemporary cinema, and to what purpose? How do popular films embody religious symbols, rituals and values, and to what end? How does contemporary cinema represent the teachings and traditions of different religions, in both personal and societal terms? How does the cinema help shape our attitudes towards religious “others”? Topics for discussion include: the creator and the created; free will and destiny; sin and salvation; evil and responsibility; selfhood and society; reality and illusion; transcendence and the afterlife. Some prior knowledge of Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and Maori traditions will be helpful.

COURSE DIRECTOR: J. Scott

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3831 3.00 Torah And Tradition: Jewish Religious Expressions From Antiquity To The Present ONLINE

FULLY ONLINE
This course offers an exploration of Jewish beliefs, institutions, and bodies of literature, emphasizing continuities and changes in religious expression within and across different places, circumstances, and times. Themes covered include God, the Jewish people, Torah and its interpretation, the land of Israel; the commandments (mitzvot) and their legal (halakhic) expressions; the Sabbath; daily and calendrical cycles of holiness; rites of passage, and messianic teachings. Particular attention will be paid to the varieties of Jewish religious denominations in modern times.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
The course’s learning objectives are multifold. Substantively, the course aims to impart to students a sense of the major periods in the life of Jewish religious expression and illustrate how an essential matrix of elements (God, Torah, Israel) has structured, in a recognizably continuous way, the lives of Jews while also generating new and at times highly distinct visions of God, Jewish doctrine, life cycle events, and the like. Methodologically, it emphasizes study of primary sources in translation (apart from a very few primary sources originally composed in English). In so doing, the course seeks to hone student awareness of the peculiarities of genre, the frequent indeterminacy of evidence, and difficulties involved in formulating careful historical assessments.

In paying attention to the varieties of Judaism that have come to historical expression, the course raises larger questions about the religious dimension in human affairs and about what religion is and does.

This course will be offered totally online. Lectures and many of the readings will be posted on the course website. All assignments will be submitted online except for the final examination in the official final examination period of the university.

COURSE DIRECTOR: M. Lockshin

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities & Jewish Studies and Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3835 3.00 Antisemitism and Islamophobia in Canada

This course examines contemporary manifestations of antisemitism and islamophobia in Canada. It begins by providing a brief historical review of Christian anti-Jewish thought and theology as put forward by the early Church fathers, Augustine and the subsequent papal bulls. The significance of the role of the Jew as moneylender in medieval feudal Europe will be explored as well as the antisemitism of the early modern period found in the writings of Martin Luther at the time of the Protestant Reformation. In addition to tracing these periods of anti-Jewish thought it examines the parallel anti-Muslim sentiment in the medieval Christian world as evidenced by, for example, the Crusades against the “Muslim infidels” in the Holy Land and the Christian project of the “reconquest” of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims.
Turning to the central theme of Canada, the course explores the social history of Jewish and Muslim immigration and integration into Canada, thus uncovering examples of social exclusion experienced by these immigrant communities. Stereotypical depictions of Jews and Muslims in Canadian discourse will be interrogated to expose the underlying threads of xenophobia. The course will also examine contemporary
Canadian internet hate which includes, for example, Holocaust denial and anti-Muslim rhetoric. These areas of investigation allow us reflect on the broader questions of the course which concern the construction of ethnic/religious identity. How do minority groups negotiate their identities to find a comfortable place in a majority society?

COURSE DIRECTOR: R. Schnoor

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces for Humanities, Jewish Studies & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3856 3.00 Women and the Holocaust

Although the Nazi genocide targeted both men and women, writing by victims and survivors along with contemporary depictions of the Holocaust, indicates significant gender-specific differences in experience and ways of coping and remembering. Close readings and critical analyses of primary texts are emphasized.

COURSE DIRECTOR: S. Horowitz

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities, Jewish Studies & Religious Studies Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3902 6. 00 Contemporary Popular Culture

Surveys historical and contemporary approaches to the texts and contexts of fiction, film, television, music, folklore and fashion. Themes include the industrialization of culture; changing definitions of the popular; genre and gender; the politics of style; nature and other utopias.

COURSE DIRECTOR: F. Sturino

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3908 3.00 Arts and the Law: Policies & Perspectives

Examines the interaction between the creative arts and contemporary legal and social issues presented by new forms of technology, the relationship between copyright and creativity, the concept of creative works as private property, and the conflict between artists and consumers in the digital age.

COURSE DIRECTOR: R. Fisher

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities and Culture & Expression Majors and Minors.

AP/HUMA 3975 3.00Science and Religion in Modern Western Culture

Examination of the relationship between science and religion through a study of the implications of the following intellectual developments for religious thought: the rise and triumph of Newtonian science, the Darwinian revolution, relativity theory, quantum physics, "big bang" theory, and creationism.

COURSE DIRECTOR: B. Lightman

RESERVED SPACES: Some spaces reserved for Humanities Majors and Minors.

AP/CCY 3999 6.00 Research with Children and Young People: Methods

This course explores methods and methodologies for child-centred research with a focus on ethical standards and guidelines that shape the field and sustain best practice for research with children. A child-centred approach is central to examining how children can be an integral part of the research process without being subjected to objectification and/or marginalization. This course builds applied skills in research methodologies while providing a framework for conceiving an honours research project with children/youth that the students will undertake in their final core course (CCY 4999).

Prerequisites: CCY 1999 6.00, CCY 2999 6.00
Course Credit Exclusion:: AP/HUMA 3695 6.0

RESERVED SPACES: All spaces reserved for Children's Studies Majors and Minors.